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Dong et al. (2005)CD4T lymphocyteMeanwhile, burn injury resulted in a marked increase in splenic CD3(+)CD4(+)T lymphocyte apoptosis in comparison with that in sham-scalded controls on day 1 postburn (P<0.05).
Claerhout et al. (2004)CD4T cellsCD3CD4 cells, mainly monocytes and macrophages, were the predominant subpopulation 2 days after transplantation, followed by a successive relative increase of CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, CD161 T cells, and NK cells.
Banerjee et al. (2010)CD4T-cellCONCLUSION: Survival rates of children improved which correlated with an increase in CD4(+) T-cell count concurrent with the expanded use of HAART.
Panagiotakis et al. (2007)CD4T cellImmune reconstitution was defined as an increase in the CD4 T cell count by above 200 cells/micro l, while response to HAART was defined as a decrease in HIV-1 VL to undetectable levels.
Panagiotakis et al. (2007)CD4T cellUntreated patients with a CD4(+) T cell count <200 cells/micro l, and with either CMV or EBV DNAemia, presented a delayed increase in the CD4 count after initiation of HAART (p = 0.035 and p = 0.037 respectively), while multiple herpetic DNAemia in the above patients was borderline associated with immune reconstitution (p = 0.068).
Mussini et al. (2002)CD4T cellPatients who were treated showed a significant daily increase in CD4/CD8 T cell ratio with longer time spent on therapy (0.04% increase per day longer on antiretroviral therapy, p=0.02).
Jabs et al. (2002)CD4T-cellIncident cases were less likely than prevalent cases to be on HAART (51.2% vs 77.6%, P =.001) and to have had an immunologic response to HAART (increase in CD4(+) T-cell count to > 100 cells/microl) (12.2% vs 57.5%, P <.001).
Hasson et al. (2002)CD4T cellsGranulocyte/monocyte apheresis induces sustained increases in CD4 T cells in HIV-1 infected patients with poor CD4 T cell restoration after suppression of viral replication by HAART.
Hasson et al. (2002)CD4T cellsHowever, in approximately 5 to 15% of patients suppression of viral replication is not followed by an increase in CD4 T cells.
Raimondi et al. (2006)CD4T cellWe show that transient Ag presentation, in absence of inflammation and in a self-context, induces CD4(+) T cell activation and memory formation.
Gandhi et al. (2006)CD4T-cellCONCLUSIONS: In this large randomized trial, younger age, female sex, higher naive/memory CD4 cell ratio, higher baseline VL, and VS were associated with greater CD4 cell increase, whereas persistent T-cell activation was associated with impaired CD4 cell recovery after ART initiation.
Anthony et al. (2003)CD4T cellIncreased CD4 T cell turnover correlated strongly with CD4 cell counts both before (R = -0.6; p <.001) and after (R = -0.4; p =.05) HAART.
Anthony et al. (2003)CD4T cellIn patients with baseline CD4 cell counts of less than 350/microL, decreases in CD4 T cell turnover with HAART significantly correlated with increases in CD4 cell counts.
Chen et al. (2009)CD4T lymphocytesRESULTS: Twenty-four hours after brain trauma, a significant increase in the number of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes occurred in the injured brain tissue, both reaching the highest levels on day 10, at the point of which the number of CD4(+) cells increased by about 15 folds and that of CD8(+) cells by about 20 folds compared with the control groups.
Kira et al. (1990)CD4T cellsThese data suggest that BP/IFA-sensitization can also induce BP-reactive cells capable of becoming CD4+ blastoid T cells with marked upregulation of CD4, CD2, class I and II MHC, and IL2 receptor molecules directly related to potent encephalitogenicity, in vivo.
Kira et al. (1989)CD4T cellsGeneration of CD4+ blastoid T cells showing marked upregulation of CD4, class I and II MHC, and IL2 receptor molecules is required for the expression of potent encephalitogenicity.
Kira et al. (1989)CD4T cells(i) In BP/CFA sensitization, CD4+ blastoid T cells showing marked upregulation of CD4, class I and II MHC, and IL2 receptor molecules, but not CD5, CD8, or CD45, were generated after culture with BP.
Kira et al. (1989)CD4T cellsVigorous proliferation of the cells induced by addition of recombinant IL2 to the culture with BP neither enhanced the encephalitogenicity nor produced CD4+ blastoid T cells showing marked upregulation of CD4, class I and II MHC, and IL2 receptor molecules.
Kira et al. (1989)CD4T cellsThese data suggest that the generation of CD4+ blastoid T cells showing marked upregulation of CD4, class I and II MHC, and IL2 receptor molecules but not vigorous proliferation correlates closely with the potent encephalitogenicity in vivo.
Mulder et al. (1995)CD4T cellWe conclude that the psychosocial intervention programs tested here did not cause changes in CD4 cell decline or T cell responses and that decreases in distress were related to increases in CD4 cell counts.
Watanabe et al. (1998)CD45RChighCD4T cellsFlow-cytometric analysis of isolated cells from inflamed mucosa revealed that CD45RChighCD4(+) T cells were significantly increased.
Xiao et al. (1998)CD4T cellThe levels of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) mRNA-expressing cells were upregulated in CD4(+) T cell clones after tolerance induction.
Gendron et al. (2002)CD4T cellsHowever, the percentage of CD5(+)-CD8(+) T cells decreased at 2 days, resulting in an increased CD4/CD8 ratio, and both parameters returned to control levels after 7 days.
Delemarre et al. (1999)CD4T cellAn increase in the CD4/CD8 T cell ratio was observed in both the syn- and alloMLR due to a relative weak expansion of CD8+ T cells with DC of the BB-DP rat.
Matsuura et al. (1984)W3/25T cellsThese T cells positive for R1-10B5 appeared to be negative for W3/25 antigen, which has been shown to be the marker for the rat T cell subset associated with helper function.
Fraaij et al. (2007)CD4T-cellsOver time an increase in CD4 + T-cells was observed, albeit not significant for any treatment group.
Hazenberg et al. (2003)CD4T cellsThe predictive value of CD8 T cell activation was confirmed and, in addition, in the course of infection low CD4 T cell counts and increasing proportions of dividing CD4 T cells, dividing CD8 T cells or elevated CD4 T cell activation marker expression became independent predictors of progression to AIDS.
Weaver et al. (2009)CD4T cellAbortive activation of CD4 T cell responses during competitive priming in vivo.
Mussini et al. (2005)CD4T cellsMETHODS: Mitochondrial DNA content was measured in platelet-free CD4 and CD8 T cells by real-time polymerase chain reaction; flow cytometry was used to identify and quantify activated CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes.
Reed et al. (2003)CD4T cellWhen both pathways of alloantigen presentation were intact, CD4 T cell activation in response to cardiac allografts was rapid and systemic by day 4 after transplantation, in contrast to that seen in response to skin allografts, which was delayed until 10-12 days after transplantation.
Kravcik et al. (2001)CD4T-cellAnalysis of variance modeling revealed increased CD4 T-cell responses in PI-treated groups at all time points after the second week.
Li et al. (1998)CD4T-cellBACKGROUND: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) decreases viral load and increases CD4 T-cell counts in patients with advanced HIV-1 infection.
Gerloni and Zanetti (2001)CD4T cellThis review presents and discusses our recent data on the use of somatic transgene immunization in the induction of CD4 T cell responses in vivo.
Gerloni and Zanetti (2001)CD4T cellIn addition, they show how ad hoc modifications of the transgene result in the induction of a CD4 T cell response against Th cell determinants against which a response is normally not obtained.
Tsuchiya et al. (2010)CD4T-cellBALF from OVA-sensitized/challenged rats induced CD4(+) T-cell migration, which was inhibited by both AG1478 treatment in vivo and neutralization of IL-6 in vitro.
Papaccio et al. (2006)CD4T cellsIn particular, the production of IL-1beta and IL-4 during the non-diabetic period together with the lack of enhancement of CD4 and CD25, indicating selective recruitment of activated T cells, may explain the failure of anti-diabetic treatments in this animal model of type 1 diabetes.
Resino et al. (2002)CD4T-lymphocytesBACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to determine the probability of achieving a fall-off of viral load (VL) and an increase of CD4+T-lymphocytes by 36 months from the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a cohort of HIV-infected children according to their baseline data.
Vidal et al. (1999)CD4T cellOverall, these findings support the concepts that CD4 is an integral part of the initial formation of the immunological synapse, and that the requirement for different CD4 functions in T cell activation varies depending upon the potency of the ligand.
Beretta et al. (2002)CD4T cellThe results showed that treatment with G1 apheresis without discontinuation of HAART results in an accelerated immune reconstitution with sustained increases in CD4 T cell counts in those patients who respond virologically to HAART.
Appel et al. (2007)CD4T cellIn contrast, this increase in the CD4:CD8 T cell ratio in the left (treated) lung compared to the right (untreated) lung was not observed after normal saline aspiration (Figure 6).
Appel et al. (2007)CD4T cellHowever, when all rats were evaluated collectively, regardless of the duration of treatment, the relative increase in CD4:CD8 T cell ratios in the left (treated) lung compared to the right (untreated) lung was significantly greater among rats receiving gastric fluid compared to those receiving normal saline.
Croft and Purcell (2010)CD4T-cellPeptide vaccination strategies aimed at inducing CD4(+) T-cell responses may be hampered due to the poorly receptive nature of MHC class II molecules to exogenous antigen.
Bauer et al. (2005)CD4T-cellAnalysis of the resulting immune responses against antigens encoded by these vectors indicated that the increased stability resulted in a strong and reproducible induction of both antigen-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell and antibody responses even after a single application.
Nakayama et al. (1993)CD4T-cellInterestingly, we found that CD4 overexpression significantly interfered with the ability of CD4 crosslinking to activate associated p56lck molecules and significantly interfered with the ability of CD4 to regulate T-cell antigen receptor expression.
Tshibangu et al. (2004)CD4T cellMAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Improvement in overall health condition and immune system, increase in CD4+T cell count and decrease in viral load count.
Tshibangu et al. (2004)CD4T cellOBJECTIVE: To assess efficacy of a South African traditional herbal medicine in reducing viral load and increasing CD4+T cell counts of HIV/AIDS patients.
Sugimoto et al. (2005)CD4T-cellIncreased 1a-specific CD4 T-cell responsiveness in non-1a-infected patients was not due to increased immunogenicity or cross-reactivity of non-1a viruses but directly related to sequence divergence.
Gruener et al. (2004)CD4T cellThis review summarizes the natural history, therapeutic options and future therapeutic strategies aimed at the induction and reinforcement of an adequate virus-specific CD4+ T cell response.
Myers and Vella (2005)CD4T-cellThis review will focus on CD137 (4-1BB) and propose a mechanism of action in which CD137-primed CD8 T cells express effector function and also inhibit CD4 T-cell activation.
Grunewald (2007)CD4T-cellsThe immune response in sarcoidosis, with a typical accumulation of CD4+ T-cells to the lungs, indicate the existence of specific antigens in this disease.
Rossman (1996)CD4T cellsImmunologic studies have demonstrated a cell-mediated response to beryllium that is due to an accumulation of CD4+ T cells at the site of disease activity.
Anthony et al. (2003)CD4T cellIncomplete CD4 T cell recovery in HIV-1 infection after 12 months of highly active antiretroviral therapy is associated with ongoing increased CD4 T cell activation and turnover.
Tian et al. (2004)CD4T cellsCONCLUSIONS: The resistance of the peripheral CD4+CD25+ T cells to Rapa treatment might contribute to its immunosuppressive action.
Abe et al. (2009)CD4T-cellsCloser examination of the phenotype and functional properties of these DST-primed CD4+ T-cells vs. those obtained from DSTx4+LTx clearly reveal 2 distinct populations of T-cells.
Abe et al. (2009)CD4T-cellsIndeed, when CD8+ T-cells are removed from unfractionated DST-primed T-cells, the remaining CD4+ T-cells respond to alloantigens with a 2–3 fold higher proliferative response (Fig. 2B) suggesting that CD8+ T-cells actively suppress alloantigen activation of CD4+ T-cells.
Abe et al. (2009)CD4+T-cellsMoreover, we observed similar increases in Foxp3 and CD25 expression on CD4+T-cells obtained from the second set of recipients that received CD4+ T-cells from rats subjected DSTx4 alone when analyzed by flow cytometry(100days after LTx; data not shown).
Sayegh et al. (1991)CD4T cellWe conclude that the anti-CD4 mAb, BWH-4, prevents acute rejection of vascularized heterotopic rat cardiac allografts; this effect is mediated by depletion of the CD4+ T cell subset, suppression of alloantibody production, and inhibition of lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity.
Hall et al. (2008)CD4T cellsBlocking IFN-gamma or iNOS enhanced CD4+CD25(-)T cell proliferation only in the absence of CD4+CD25+T cells.
Kaufmann and Hess (1999)CD4T-cellsSome bacterial pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis presumably remain in the phagosome but apparently 'perforate' the phagosomal membrane and thus stimulate both CD4 and CD8 T-cells.
Norris et al. (2004)CD4T cellThe minimum peptide length required for induction of CD4(+) T cell proliferation, IFN-gamma secretion, and cytolytic activity ranged from 9 to 16 amino acids in the five epitopes studied.
Davey et al. (2008)CD4T cellLimited efficacy data indicated that treatment with BAY 50-4798 caused at least a transient increase in CD4(+) T cell counts in some recipients, particularly at the early time points.
Shankar et al. (2008)CD4T-cellGBV infection is widely believed to prolong HIV disease progression as well as decreasing the HIV viral load and increasing the CD4(+) T-cell level.
Fornataro and Jefferys (1999)CD4T-cellAlthough combination therapy with HAART (Highly Active AntiRetroviral Therapy) can increase CD4 (T-cell) counts, doctors have been cautious about stopping preventive treatments, or prophylaxis, for PCP (Pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis).
Matsuo et al. (1997)CD4T cellsTo remove CD4+ T cells selectively from the circulation, we designed a new column in which anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody was immobilized on the activated substance.
Xiao et al. (1998)CD4T cellDecrease of LFA-1 is associated with upregulation of TGF-beta in CD4(+) T cell clones derived from rats nasally tolerized against experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis.
Nordøy et al. (1999)CD4T cellsFurthermore, a lower median count of CD4+ T cells (0.54 x 109/l in patients vs0.87 x 109/l in controls) resulted in reduced CD4/CD8 ratios (0.8 in patients vs 1.6 in controls).
Tzianabos et al. (2000)CD4T-cellBacterial pathogens induce abscess formation by CD4(+) T-cell activation via the CD28-B7-2 costimulatory pathway.
Hosszufalusi et al. (1992)CD4T cellWe observed that percentages of the CD4-CD8- T cell receptor alpha/beta+ (double-negative) T cell subset were strikingly increased in the lymphopenic DP and D animals, compared with DR animals.
Fernandez-Cruz et al. (1980)W3/25T cellsWith these changes, there was an increase in the W3/25 antigen on the T cell surface, a decrease of W3/13 antigen, and an increase in the number of T cells with Ia antigens.
McKinnon et al. (2010)CD4T cellThe rate of CD4+ T cell increase on ART was 7.91 cells/month (mean = 13, range -25.92 to 169.4).
McKinstry et al. (2007)CD4T cellThe majority of highly activated CD4 T cell effectors die after antigen clearance, but a small number revert to a resting state, becoming memory cells with unique functional attributes.
van Tienhoven et al. (2001)CD4T cellInduction of antigen specific CD4+ T cell responses by invariant chain based DNA vaccines.
Pelegrí et al. (2001)CD4T cellFourteen days after arthritis induction, regional lymph nodes presented an increase in CD4+CD45RC(high) T cell proportion.
Di Perri et al. (1999)CD4T lymphocytesRESULTS: The HAART recipients in whom anti-CMV maintenance therapy had been interrupted had measureable increases of CD4+ T lymphocytes, substantial control of both HIV-RNA and CMV viraemia and did not show recurrence of retinitis during a mean follow-up of 98.4 weeks (range 78-120, SD 15.2).
Podojil and Miller (2009)CD4T-cellTherefore, the signaling pathways involved in the induction of CD4(+) T-cell anergy, as apposed to activation, are topics of intense interest.
Wei et al. (2006)CD4T lymphocyteUpregulation of CD4+CD25+ T lymphocyte by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of CTLA4Ig fusion protein in experimental autoimmune myocarditis.
Reed et al. (2003)CD4T cellAlloreactive CD4 T cell activation in vivo: an autonomous function of the indirect pathway of alloantigen presentation.
Fujiki et al. (2010)CD4T cellsWe conclude that posttransplant total lymphoid irradiation significantly increases the apoptosis of T cells in the liver graft and allows the accumulation of CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) T regulatory cells, which facilitate the generation of donor-specific tolerance.
Pezzotta et al. (2005)CD4CD25T cellsInfusion of allogeneic (BN) splenocytes caused a twofold increase of activated CD4 T cells (CD4CD25) that was prevented by ST1959 treatment.
Zipris et al. (2003)CD4T cellsThis increase appeared to be due to the accumulation of nonproliferating CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells.
Zong et al. (2008)CD4T cellsHowever, amiodarone-treated group induced a decrease in the proportion of CD4(+)TNF(+) and CD4(+)IL-4(+) T cells and an increase in CD4(+)IFN(+) T cells, resulting in a significant reduction of the CD4(+)TNF(+)/CD4(+)IFN(+) and CD4(+)IL-4(+)/CD4(+)IFN(+) T cell ratios.
Huang et al. (1994)CD4T cellsBoth treatments significantly reduced glomerular accumulation of CD5 and CD4 positive T cells at day 10.
Kravcik et al. (2001)CD4T-cellRESULTS: In both trials, patients receiving nelfinavir had greater CD4 T-cell increases than patients receiving RTI alone.
Nomura et al. (2006)CD4T cellsThe ratio of CD4+CD25+ T cells to CD4+CD25- T cells was increased to examine if this delayed rejection.
Saenghirunvattana (1996)CD4T cellThe CD4 + T cell counts among non HIV-infected patients were 510 +/- 409 and increased to 634 +/- 382 and 867 +/- 248 at the third and sixth month of therapy.
Kelley (2004)CD4T cellsAntigen stimulation of CD4+T cells is believed to play a crucial role in giant cell (temporal) arteritis which is the most common type of CNS vasculitis.
van Rossum et al. (2001)CD4T cellThere was a correlation between the increase of absolute naive CD4 T cell counts and age.
van Rossum et al. (2001)CD4T cellHowever, when CD4 T cell restoration was studied as percentage of normal values, the inverse correlation between the increase of naive CD4 T cell count and age was not observed.
Rizzi et al. (2005)CD4T cellHere, we used DNA immunization targeted at B lymphocytes to induce a CD4 T cell response that could be measured 2 weeks after birth.
French et al. (2000)CD4T-cellThey were most common in patients with a baseline CD4 T-cell count of < 50/uL and occurred most often during the first 2 months of therapy and when CD4 T-cell counts were increasing.
Wodarz and Krakauer (2000)CD4T cellsHowever, the absence of HIV-specific CTL can result in an equivalent depletion of the CD4 T cell pool as a consequence of the short life span of activated T cells.
Rong et al. (2007)CD4T cellsTreating HIV-infected patients with a combination of several antiretroviral drugs usually contributes to a substantial decline in viral load and an increase in CD4(+) T cells.
Ikuta (1996)CD4T cellsHIV, the etiological agent of AIDS, induces depletion of CD4+T cells.
Teif and Rippe (2009)CD4T cellsFrom an analysis of data for nucleosome positions in resting and activated human CD4(+) T cells [Schones et al., Cell 132, p. 887] it was concluded that the redistribution of a nucleosome map to a new state is greatly facilitated if the remodeler complex translocates the nucleosome with a preferred directionality.
Anthony et al. (2003)CD4T cellElevated CD4 and CD8 T cell turnover (measured by Ki67) in HIV infection decreased with HAART in blood and lymphoid tissue.
Baird and Wright (2006)CD4T-cellIn recent cellular profiling studies, increased levels of a proinflammatory T-cell subset (CD4 (+)CD28 (-)) have been associated with stroke recurrence and death.
Santoni et al. (1999)CD4T cellConcomitant administration of SP with the non-peptide Neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) antagonist SR140333 completely inhibited the SP-mediated augmentation of Con A-induced PBL proliferation and IL-2 production as well as of CD4+ CD25+ and CD4+ RT1B+ T cell numbers in normal and capsaicin-treated rats.